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|HANES CYMRU/HISTORY OF WALES
Following are some of the important historical dates in Welsh and Y Dynion Mwyn History.
DYDDIADAU / HISTORICAL DATES
|DATE||EVENT (IN WELSH)||EVENT) IN ENGLISH)|
|2500-100 B.C.||Y Celtiaid yn ymsefydlu yng Nghymru||The Celts settle in Wales.|
|43 A.D.||Byddinoedd Ymerawdwr Rhufain, Claudius, yn goresgyn Prydain. Mae'n cymryd 35 mlynedd i feddiannu Cymru||Troops of Roman Emperor Claudius invade Britain. It takes 35 years to fully conquer Wales. (78 A.D.)|
|350 A.D.||Ysbeilwyr Gwyddelig yn ymsefydlu yn Ne Orllewin Cymru||Irish raiders make permanent settlements in South West Wales.|
|383 A.D.||Y llengoedd Rhufeinig yn gadael Prydain gyda Macsen Wledig, sy'n gobeithio dod yn Ymerawdwr||The Roman legions leave Britain with Macsen Wledig (Magnus Maximus) who seeks to become Emperor.|
|400 A.D.||Cunedda yn symud o Fanaw Gododdin i Wynedd i gael gwared o'r Gwyddelwyr||Cunedda moves from Manaw Gododdin to Gwynedd to eject the Irish.|
|410 A.D.||Y Rhufeiniaid yn gadael. Sacsoniaid yn dechrau goresgyn Prydain||Four hundred years of occupation end for Britain as the Romans leave. Saxon invaders seize the opportunity and start invading.|
|440 A.D.||Teyrnasiad Gwrtheyrn. Y Jiwtiaid Hengist a Horsa yn cyrraedd gyda'u milwyr||The reign of Gwrtheyrn (Vortigern) and the arrival of the Jutes Hengist and Horsa and their mercenary band.|
|519 A.D.||Brwydr Badon, buddugoliaeth "Frythonaidd", a gysylltir â'r Brenin Arthur||The battle of Mount Badon, a British victory traditionally associated with Arthur.|
|539 A.D.||Brwydr Camlan, lle lleddir Arthur||The battle of Camlan, in which Arthur is killed.|
|550 A.D.||Hen Gymraeg yn datblygu o'r iaith Frythoneg||Old Welsh emerges from the British language.|
|577 A.D.||Brwydr Dyrham||The battle of Dyrham (Deorham), after which the Welsh lose contact with the Britons of Devon and Cornwall.|
|589 A.D.||Marwolaeth||The death of Dewi Sant.|
|595 A.D.||Brwydr||The battle of Catraeth, commemorated by Aneirin in Y Gododdin|
|615 A.D.||Brwydr Caer a chyflafan mynachod Bangor Iscoed. Wedi hyn, mae'r Cymry yn dechrau colli cysylltiad â Brythoniaid "yr hen Ogledd"||The battle of Chester and the massacre of the monks of Bangor Iscoed, after which the Welsh begin to lose contact with the Britons of 'the Old North'.|
|632 A.D.||Brwydr Meigen||Cadwallon of Gwynedd, in alliance with Penda of Mercia, defeats Edwin of Northumbria at the battle of Meigen (Heathfield).|
|635 A.D.||Defnyddio'r gair "Cymry" i ddynodi pobl Cymru||The word "Cymry" is used to denote the Welsh.|
|638 A.D.||Goresgyn tiroedd y Gododdin gan Eingl||The territory of the Gododdin is overrun by the Angles.|
|642 A.D.||Pobl Mersia yn ymosod ar deyrnas Powys||The Mercians attack the kingdom of Powys.|
|664 A.D.||Marwolaeth||The death of Cadwaladr, the last Welsh 'King of Britain'.|
|784 A.D.||Adeiladu Clawdd Offa||Offa of Mercia, a powerful Saxon king, builds Offa's Dyke, marking Wales' eastern boundary. The Dyke is not a fortified one, but a permanent boundary line.|
|823 A.D.||The first leader of importance to emerge among the Welsh was born. He was the warrior king Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri the Great). He owed his heritage to a long line of Welsh Bards from whom he learned the sacred knowledge. He was the first of the clan to have the Druidic Philosophy written in Runes on Folios of Bark. He was the second to call his bardic tribe Dynion Mwyn.|
|844-78 A.D.||Teyrnasiad||reign of Rhodri Mawr. King, not only of Powys, but through skillful alliances and marriages, of a great deal of the rest of Wales as well. Successful in warding off attacks, killing in battle the Viking leader Gorm, Rhodri gave his country a remarkable period of unity and stability.|
|850 A.D.||Cychwyn ymosodiad y Llychlynwyr ar Gymru||Viking attacks on Wales begin.|
|878 A.D.||Lladd Rhodri mawr||The most notable Welsh figure before the arrival of the Normans is slain. Rhodri himself was killed in battle in 878 A.D., fighting an English incursion into his lands. Rhodri Mawr was the first Welsh ruler to unite the Welsh tribes and kingdoms under one rule. During his reign, the Vikings increase their raids.|
|890 A.D.||Llywodraethwyr Cymru yn cydnabod unbennaeth Alfred||Welsh rulers acknowledge the overlordship of Alfred of Wessex.|
|900-950 A.D.||Teyrnasiad Hywel Dda, Brenin Cymru. Ail-luniodd gyfreithiau Cymru||The reign of Hywel Dda, King of Wales, who reorganized the laws of Wales.|
|927 A.D.||Brenhinoedd Cymru yn ymostwng yn swyddogol i frenin Lloegr||Welsh kings formally submit to the English king.|
|1039-63 A.D.||Gruffydd ap Llywelyn yn uno Cymru||Gruffydd ap Llywelyn unites Wales.|
|1063 A.D.||The English, under future king Earl Harold, drive their army into Wales. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn is killed by his own men and relatives and England's ascendancy is reaffirmed.|
|1067 A.D.||Y Normaniaid yn dechrau treiddio Cymru, a chreir arglwyddiaethau'r Gororau||The Normans begin to penetrate Wales and the lordships of the March are created.|
|1120 A.D.||Canoneiddio Dewi Sant||Dewi Sant is canonized by Rome as Saint David.|
|1137-70 A.D.||Teyrnasiad||Reign of Owain Gwynedd.|
|1141 A.D.||Marwolaeth Henri I. Dau Lywelyn Gwynedd yn codi'r hen wlad yn ei hol||Henry the First dies and Wales experiences a resurgence under the two Llywelyns of Gwynedd. Wales moves toward unity as their territory is reclaimed and the culture flourishes.|
|1162 A.D.||Gypsies, who had come from North India via Russia, Romania, and Germany, wandered into Wales and were given safe haven by the family of Owain Gwynedd. They had with them ancient writings which they called the Tarot.|
|1176 A.D.||Yr eisteddfod gyntaf Aberteifi||First eisteddfod in Cardigan.|
|1169 A.D.||Prince Madoc ap Owen Gwynedd, an illegitimate son of Owain and a 5th level elder of Dynion Mwyn of Northern Wales, sailed to the Americas and established a colony. He left on a May morning, from Abrgele, with one ship, the Gwennan Gorn, and a crew of twenty. He arrived in the new world and established a settlement. He helped reestablish the Old Atlantean Religion among the Native Americans he found there. He returned to Wales in 1171 A.D. where he described what he had found, and with his brother Riryd, Lord of Clochran in Ireland, returned to the Americas with seven Ships and three hundred men. He was subsequently killed in 1172 A.D., and buried in what is now Georgia, in the United States. The remains of his expedition were driven north up the Missouri river and blended their blood with an Indian tribe called the Mandans.|
|1188 A.D.||Taith Gerallt Gymro drwy Gymru gyda'r Archesgob Baldwin||Gerald de Barri (Giraldus Cambrensis) accompanies Archbishop Baldwin on his journey through Wales.|
|1215 A.D.||Arwyddo'r Magna Carta gan y brenin John||The Magna Carta signed. Restores Welsh lands taken unjustly, and some Welsh laws.|
|1264 A.D.||Prince Llewellyn allied with Simeon de Montfort against the King of England.|
|1265 A.D.||Simeon de Montfort was killed at the battle of Evesham, and the King of England pushed Prince Llewellyn deep into Wales. But finally at the treaty of Montgomery, Llewellyn succeeded in obtaining from the king, confirmation that he was the true Prince of Wales, and the right to demand homage by all the Welsh lords.|
|1267 A.D.||Llywelyn II with the Treaty of Montgomery is recognised as Prince of Wales, with overlordship of all other Welsh Princes and Barons.|
|1271 A.D.||Hywel Voel commanded trusted scribes and clerks who owed allegiance to prince Llewellyn, to begin the task of compiling what was left of the known mystical knowledge of the Llewellyn family into ordered volumes. Prince Llewellyn was patron to Hywel Voel who was a Druid and Bard. Hywel Voel wrote of Prince Llewellyn's involvement with the Knights Templar and the Ordre de Seon. It is said that Hywel was the first to collect The Thirteen Treasures. He also caused The Owl, to be created. This was the first Grimoire or spell book of our tradition. The accumulation and recording of this knowledge, was no mean feat, for the political climate of those years was not conducive to study, travel or teaching. These manuscripts also claim that relatives of Eleanor de Montfort, Prince Llewellyn's wife's, were initiates of the Ordre de Seon in France.|
|1275 A.D.||Eleanor de Monfort and Prince Llewellyn were first married by proxy. Eleanor's linage was highly distinguished. Among her uncles was a king of England, a king of France, and a holy Roman Emperor. Eleanor sailed from France to Wales in 1275, but her ship was seized and she was imprisoned by the king of England, in Windsor castle. King Edward was determined to destroy the power of the Welsh Prince. Many battles were fought between the English and the Welsh during this period.|
|1277 A.D.||At the Treaty of Aberconwy, Prince Llewellyn was forced to accept
humiliating terms and to give up most of his recently acquired lands, keeping only Gwynedd
west of the Conwy River. Edward followed up his successes by building English strongholds
around the perimeter of what remained of Llewelyn's possessions. Strong, easily defended
castles were erected at Flint, Rhuddlan, Aberystwyth and Builth, garrisoned by large
detachments of English immigrants and soldiers.
It was Also in this year that Hywel compiled the Thirteen Treasures and added additional knowledge from several sources: from the Druids came the sacred knowledge of the Stones; from the Order of the Knights Templars he added the Magick of the Egyptians.
|1278 A.D.||Though Edward was now firmly in control of his Welsh territories, Prince Llewellyn was not yet finished. During a period of peace between the two leaders, King Edward finally allowed Prince Llewellyn and Eleanor to be married in reality. In October 1278, Prince Llewellyn married Eleanor in King Edward's presence at Worcester Cathedral. It was a period in which the Welsh leader bided his time and pondered his options. When the people of Wales, under his brother Dafydd, eventually rose in a massive revolt at the loss of control over their customs and their law and the restrictive and oppressive English rule, Llewellyn could not help but lead their cause.|
|1279 A.D.||Prince Llywelyn was initiated into the Order of the Knights Templars. Hywel added the Mithraic astrological mysteries from the Persian Gypsies; from Pictish ancestors came the remains of the Faerie tradition; from the nine maidens of the Isle de Seon came the ancient mystic knowledge of the Etruscans and the Ordre de Seon. The Tribe also absorbed the knowledge of various Witchcraft Covens and Groves it came in contact with through the years as well as Cabalistic Magick from the East.|
|1282 A.D.||Llewellyn again refused to recognize Edward I, as overlord. This led to a
virtual war between the Welsh Prince and King Edward.
gentlefolk of Wales, despoiled of their liberty and their rights,
At first, Llywelyn was eminently successful, the castles of Builth, Aberystwyth and Ruthin fell into his hands, and a large English force was utterly destroyed in the Menai Straights in Gwynedd. Edward had to devote the whole of his kingdom's resources to deal with the "malicious, accursed" Welsh.
Eleanor died giving birth to a daughter Gwenllian on June 19, 1282. This seemed to be a portent of things to come. For it was a mere chance encounter of Llewellyn with an English knight in a meadow at Cilmeri, near Builth in Powys that ended the Welsh dream.
At Cilmeri, in that quiet green meadow on the road from Builth Wells to Llandovery, you will see a tall granite monolith. It looks, at first, like one of the ancient standing stones erected thousands of years ago by our Neolithic ancestors. A close inspection reveals it to be a monument erected in l956 to the memory of Prince Llewellyn, "our last ruler" (Ein Lliw Olaf). Llywelyn, separated from his army, found himself in a minor skirmish and on December 11, 1282 A.D. he was killed by an English knight unaware of the Welsh prince's identity. Upon discovery, Llewelyn's head was sent to London for display as that of a traitor.
After Llewellyn was killed in battle against Edward's troops, the English took control of Cymru. Edward's troubles with the Welsh, for all practical purposes were at an end. Henceforth, Wales was to live under an alien political system, playing a subordinate role as an integral part of the kingdom of England. A poignant ballad by modern Welsh songwriter and nationalist, Dafydd Iwan, expresses the grief of the Welsh nation at the loss of their beloved Llewellyn: Collir Llywelyn, collir cyfan (losing Llewellyn is losing everything).
|1284 A.D.||The Statute of Rhuddlan officially placed North Wales under direct English
rule, dividing Llewelyn's territory into counties under English sheriffs. One method used
to control the country was the construction of fortified castles such as those at
Caernarvon and Harlech.
The English also put pressure on the Cymry poets, the bards, to prevent them from inciting revolt. Finally, the Cymry chieftains cooperated with Edward I when he promised that only a prince born in Cymru, who could speak no English, would rule over them. In 1301, Edward gave the title Prince of Wales to his son, who had been born in Cymru.
Because of the intense scrutiny, Y Dynion Mwyn, as the way of Dynion Mwyn had become known, became secretive and effectively disappeared for a time. Gruffudd ap Madawg, a relative of Prince Llewellyn, took Madawg Dwygraig as the family Bard and Druid. Madawg Dwygraig wrote of establishing a Druid Grove near the Llynfi valley, Llangynwyd, Wales in 1284. It is alleged that he helped establish the Mt. Haemus Druid Grove, near Oxford, England.
Our research shows that Dynion Mwyn has two linages. Owain, son of Dafydd, kept the tradition of his uncles' family and sent his wife and three children to France where they were to wait until times more favorable. In the meantime, King Edward placed Prince Llewelyn's daughter Gwenllian in a convent of English Gilbertine nuns in Sempringham, Lincolnshire, with her cousin, Eleanor. They were supposed to stay there until death or until King Edward found a use for them.
The family of Owain assumed a false name and returned to England and eventually to Cardiff, Wales. They contacted Lady Gwenllian and informed her of her heritage. At first she rejected their ideas but eventually she escaped from the nunnery, became a priestess of the order, married a nobleman and had six children. His surname was the beginning of the Y Dynion Mwyn Family Tradition. (To be fair, some history books claim that Gwenllian died in the convent and others say that Eleanor was really the daughter of Prince Llywelyn. There is no real proof one way or the other.)
Prince Llewellyn had another daughter from a secret marriage to a English Noblewoman. This daughter was named Catherine. She married Phillip ap Ivor, Lord of Iscoed. They in turn had a daughter Eleanor who married Thomas Llewellyn. Eleanor had two daughters, Margaret and Eleanor. Eleanor married Griffith Vychan, Lord of Glyndwrdwy. The legend says that Griffith Vychan was instrumental in saving the tradition from oblivion. He joined with the family of Owain, which he mentions in his writings (he had a son named Owen Glyndwr, who was a prince of Wales and lived 1400 to 1416.) But it is unclear if the family of Owain or the family of Griffith Vychan was the source of later teachings.
|1301 A.D.||Arwisgo mab Edward I yn dywysog Cymru||At Caernarfon Castle Edward I's son is invested as the Prince of Wales.|
|1349 A.D.||Y Pla||The Plague, or Black Death, sweeps through Wales, leaving up to 40 per cent of the population dead.|
|1400 A.D.||Owain Glyndw^r, gyda chefnogaeth Cymru gyfan, yn arwain gwrthryfel yn erbyn Lloegr||Owain Glyndw^r, with the whole of Wales behind him, leads a revolt against England.|
|1402 A.D.||Llywodraeth Lloegr yn pasio cyfreithiau penydiol yn erbyn y Cymry||The English Parliament passes Penal Laws against the Welsh.|
|1404-06 A.D.||Senedd Owain Glyndw^r ym Machynlleth a Phennal. Mae'n cynnig ei deyrngarwch i Bab Avignon, ac yn arddel archesgobaeth a dwy brifysgol i Gymru||Owain Glyndw^r holds Parliaments at Machynlleth and Pennal, and offers his allegiance to the Pope of Avignon, proposing an arch-bishopric and two universities for Wales.|
|1415 A.D.||Diwedd gwrthryfel Owain Glyndw^r wrth iddo ddiflannu, ac wrth i Henri IV a'i fab ei lethu. Y Cymry wedi'i bychanu, ac yn cael eu hystyried yn ddosbarth is||Owain Glyndw^r's rebellion ends as he disappears and Henry IV and his son suppress it. Defeat means second class citizenship for the Welsh and humiliation.|
|1451 A.D.||Cynnal eisteddfod yng Nghaerfyrddin||An eisteddfod is held at Carmarthen Castle under the patronage of Gruffudd ap Nicolas.|
|1485 A.D.||Glaniodd Henri Tudur ger Aberdaugleddau, ac ymdeithiodd drwy Gymru i guro Richard III ym mrwydr Bosworth||Henry Tudor lands near Milford Haven and marches through Wales to defeat Richard IlI at Bosworth.|
|1523 A.D.||Eisteddfod Caerwys.|
|1536-42 A.D.||Deddf Uno yn ymgorffori Cymru (dros 95% yn uniaith Gymraeg) a Lloegr oherwydd '. . . that the people of the same dominion have and do daily use a speech nothing like the consonant to the natural mother tongue used within this Realm." Ei bwriad oedd "utterly to extirp all and singular the sinister usages and customs differing from the same. . . to an amiable concord and unity". Felly. meddai, 'From henceforth no person or persons that use the Welsh speech or language shall have or enjoy any manor office or fees. . . unless he or they use and exercise the speech or language of English.'||Henry VIII enacts the first Act of Union, joining Wales (over 95% monoglot Welsh speakers) with England for the reason '. . . that the people of the same dominion have and do daily use a speech nothing like the consonant to the natural mother tongue used within this Realm." Its purpose was to "utterly to extirp all and singular the sinister usages and customs differing from the same. . . to an amiable concord and unity". It said 'From henceforth no person or persons that use the Welsh speech or language shall have or enjoy any manor office or fees unless he or they use and exercise the speech or language of English.'|
|Between 1282 A.D. and 1700 A.D., witch-hunts
and English repression made it extremely difficult to keep records. What records exist
have been found through research that validates the following: During the 1300's and
1400's, because of the Inquisition and suppression of Witches, Knights Templars and other
Pagan groups, and because of the nature of the knowledge, it was kept secret from all but
a trusted few in the families that kept the old ways. Some traditions died out, many lost
their way and digressed into legends of the "Old Ones."
Between the 1700s and today a few Welsh Witchcraft traditions survived and have passed their knowledge down to present day members.